Beijing news (reporter ma jinqian) mentioned \"housekeeping \", many people will think of\" hygiene \"\"senior nanny \", in fact, with the introduction of a number of state-level support policies, college home economics has become a \"sweet spot.\"


Public information shows that last year, there were 72 higher vocational colleges in the new home economics related majors, undergraduate and secondary vocational home economics related professional enrollment significantly higher than the same period. Among them, undergraduate college Hebei Normal University's home economics major already began to recruit students last fall.

  去年12月27日,  北京市东城区举办的2019年家政服务员、养老护理员职业技能大赛总决赛。摄影/新京报记者陶冉

On December 27, the finals of the 2019 Professional Skills Competition for Home Attendants and Pensioners were held in Dongcheng District, Beijing. Photography \/ Beijing News Correspondent Tao Ran


Reporter carding found that domestic colleges and universities to set up domestic majors are not many, including undergraduate colleges including Tianjin Normal University, Hunan Women's College, Jilin Agricultural University and so on.


Reporters learned that these schools at the beginning of the opening of domestic majors are not smooth. A staff member of Tianjin Normal University told reporters that the school retained its home economics major but did not recruit students, according to the admission of the university's official website, in 2016, home economics major has stopped enrollment. Zhejiang Shuren University staff members said that many years ago the university opened a higher vocational home service major, due to the lack of enrollment, the major has been assigned to the undergraduate business administration (domestic direction). Beijing Normal University Zhuhai Branch has abolished home economics in its 2015 undergraduate program.


In addition, Liaocheng University Dongchang College in 2009 to create a home economics major, before only a dozen people can be recruited each year. When Hunan Women's College founded the major in 2013,37 students came from the professional adjustment, and over the next four years, half of the students chose to transfer to the major.


In 2017, the National Development and Reform Commission and other 17 departments issued the \"Home Service quality and Expansion Action Plan (2017)\", the industry has a new direction for development. Liaocheng University Dongchang College homeopathic adjustment of enrollment strategy, that year began to domestic professional spring college entrance examination enrollment, and soon completely stopped summer college entrance examination enrollment.


After the change of strategy, the number of enrollment increased exponentially. \"There are 53 students majoring in home economics in class 2017,39 in class 2018 and 58 in class 2019, and the scale of students is increasing, but the current development of home economics is still at a disadvantage due to industry development and social concept problems.\" Meng Chunqing, head of the Department of Education at Dongchang College, Liaocheng University, said.


Taking advantage of the policy, last year there were 72 higher vocational colleges in the country to set up new domestic related majors, undergraduate and secondary vocational domestic related professional enrollment significantly higher than the previous year. Among them, undergraduate colleges and universities Hebei Normal University set up a new home economics, and in the autumn examination enrollment.


Why should we add a home economics major? After 2010, the market demand for high-quality domestic service gradually increased, hunan women's college housekeeping major was established in 2013, becoming the first central region to open relevant professional schools,\" on the one hand, the establishment of the major colleges and universities have a history of home economics, on the other hand, many schools have also seen'one old one child problem, social service development potential.\"


Meng Chunqing introduced that as an early establishment of home economics major colleges and universities, Liaocheng University Dongchang College in the curriculum design has begun to take shape, courses are roughly divided into basic theory, practical skills and training management three categories, the proportion in the curriculum system is about 4:3:3.


The theoretical course is based on psychology and pedagogy, with sociology and management as the core, including the introduction of home economics, the history of domestic thought, the principles and methods of housekeeping investigation, family nutrition, family education and so on.


Training and management courses include domestic business management, human resources management, domestic training and development, home economics and law, among which domestic economics and law is a new course this year to clarify the relevant laws and regulations of the domestic industry, as well as the rights and obligations of employees.


Practical skills classes include elderly care, mother and child care, family meal making, family care, family practical medicine, etc. With the development of the Internet, the college also offers \"Home Economics Electronic Commerce course\" to meet the trend of domestic enterprises to carry out online business. In response to these skills requirements, the College has opened a corresponding training room to ensure the professional practice.

  学院采用“3 1”人才培养模式,即校内学习三年后,在学校实训基地进行为期一年的课程实践。湖南女子学院同样采取这样的培养模式。

The college adopts the \"31\" talent training model, that is, after three years of study in the school, it carries out a one-year curriculum practice in the school training base. Hunan women's college also adopted such a training model.


With the continuous development of home economics, more professional personnel training system is gradually formed. In addition to higher vocational schools and undergraduate colleges, Xiong Xiaoyan, a professor at Jinling Women's College at Nanjing Normal University, said the university plans to prepare a master's degree in home economics under education, reserve teachers for the domestic education system of home economics, and begin to compile professional teaching materials.


Some parents worry that after several years of schooling in higher education, they graduate as \"senior babysitters \". In fact, in Liaocheng University Dongchang College, home economics graduates mostly engaged in domestic enterprise management training, home economics education research, there are people choose to start their own business, become home economics training school president. Mr meng said most of the students were reluctant to take care of their families.\" Even if someone chooses to do so at the time of graduation, it is about building a first-line experience to facilitate future management work.\"


Behind the opening of housekeeping majors in colleges and universities are the problems of difficult employment and low service quality. In July last year, a policy briefing by the state's new office revealed that in 2018, there were more than 30 million employees in the national political service industry, but the education level of high school and above was only%, and the mobility of employees was high, mostly \"novice\" in the industry.

  去年,国务院印发《国家职业教育改革实施方案》提出,在职业院校和应用型本科高校启动实施“学历证书 若干职业技能等级证书”(简称“1 X”),并在全国范围试点进行有关职业技能等级证书认定。

Last year, the State Council issued the National Plan for the Reform of Vocational Education, which proposes to initiate the implementation of the \"Certificate of Education\" in vocational colleges and applied undergraduate colleges A number of vocational skill grade certificates \"(referred to as \"1X \"), and in the national pilot to carry out the relevant vocational skill grade certificate identification.


Liaocheng University Dongchang College in the pilot scope, and completed the maternal and child care occupational grade assessment site application. Hunan Women's College and enterprises to create a \"excellent home\" platform to provide babysitters and other related network courses and qualifications training, the platform is now established for 3 years, plus the school students, an average of more than 2000 people a year.


Reporters visited a number of domestic service companies found that the recruitment of family service staff, the market is still the most important is the number of years of employment,\" older relatively stable, and life experience, the experience of the general rush to work, wages are relatively high.\"

  目前,大型家政企业普遍具有“中介 培训机构”的双重身份,熊筱燕表示,由中介企业直接提供培训,能更有针对性地提升劳动者工作素质。同时也符合国家层面相关规定。不过家政企业培训中,技能培训占大部分,家政理念和相关理论指导有所欠缺。“这一方面受制于受训者文化水平,另一方面也表明管理者的家政服务理念还需进一步转变,家政服务不应仅停留在体力劳动为主的简单服务。”

At present, large domestic enterprises generally have the dual identity of \"intermediary training institutions \", Xiong Xiaoyan said that direct training provided by intermediary enterprises, can be more targeted to improve the quality of workers. but also in accordance with relevant regulations at the national level. However, in the training of domestic enterprises, the majority of skills training, domestic concept and related theoretical guidance is lacking. \"On the one hand, it is subject to the trainees'education level, on the other hand, it also shows that the manager's concept of domestic service needs to be further changed, and domestic service should not just stay in the simple service of manual labor.\"


Xiong xiaoyan believes that in recent years, more schools have established domestic economics related majors, indicating that the trend of industry and discipline development is good, but still want to see that our country's political science has a small number of schools, enrollment difficulties and other problems, an important reason is that the public has a misunderstanding of domestic economics major.


“There is a clear confusion between the concepts of'domestic' and'family service'. Home economics can be said to be a'life science', a person from birth to death in the whole process of management, quality of life, involving love, marriage, children and food, clothing, housing and other life content. Mr Xiong said.


Li Ziqi, for example, is a family member, but not a``domestic politics'' . The difference between them is that Li Ziqi's video mainly shows the color and fragrance of food. In other words, Li Ziqi's short video reflects a kind of life aesthetics, so that the Internet users want to dream for the pastoral song, and how to turn the ideal life state into reality is the important meaning of the domestic politics. ``.


Xiong Xiaoyan believes that if the whole people can improve their life science literacy and manage their own life, then the staff engaged in domestic service will bring more professional services, and priority in the care of the elderly, child companionship, and even play a family-like role and role. Therefore, in the training of domestic service personnel, we should not only pay attention to the training of family service skills, but also improve the quality and concept of domestic service, for example, the carers of parenting should assume the role of mother-to-be, not only to ensure that the children are full and warm, but also to pay attention to the education of infants and promote the growth of the next generation.